Getting the Most From Your Blood Test, Part 3

So now let's look at an overview of the most common tests and what the values may mean for you.  Remember that there are three ranges when viewing your blood test: the average range of the lab, the optimal range for health, and your personal normal range.  The first will come written on the test next to each value.  The second I've listed for you below and the third is based on your own blood test history. Evaluating your own test has as its main purpose, to enable you to make a list of the questions you may want to ask your physician.  So look for common conditions among the values that are out of range and remember to compare your discoveries against your history.  You may also want to evaluate your health against the diseases and conditions that your parents have experienced and the ages at which those issues began.  For instance if arthritis is prevalent in your family, then you will want to look closely at your blood calcium, blood phosphorus and Alkaline Phosphatase values.

To avoid having to do all this legwork, you can always turn to a more comprehensive holistic lab that creates panels from your blood tests and even can give you suggestions for bringing your values into optimal ranges.  I've mentioned these labs in my previous Blood Test articles.

Remember that your normal will only vary by a few points from test to test, so you will notice changes very quickly and often before symptoms even develop.  In the values below, you will find many types of blood tests not necessary for general testing.  In addition I have listed optimal health values, instead of the generally accepted "normal" values given by testing laboratories.  I have also listed my general suggestions for each abnormal value.  By adding up the suggestions for your abnormal values, you may see a pattern of products that can provide a suggested protocol for bringing values back into optimal ranges.

But don't forget that the basis of blood values is diet.  There is nothing that will have as much of an effect on blood values as the things that you eat every day.  Once your values are out of range, your diet will not generally be enough to bring your values back into range, but you will want to evaluate how your diet should support those values, once restored to balance.

Functional Groupings of Blood Values

So let's look at groups first.  These are blood values that viewed together, give you a picture of a particular body function(s).  It really is important to have all the values in a particular group in order to evaluate the function accurately.  For instance you cannot truly evaluate thyroid function with just TSH and T3.  Those can be an indicator, but not a diagnostic tool.  So if you are concerned about a particular function, be sure to get all the blood values you need:

Electrolytes - Bicarbonate, Chloride, Glucose, Potassium, Sodium

Minerals - Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Zinc

Bones - Alkaline Phosphatase

Kidneys - BUN, Creatinine, BUN/Creatinine Ratio, Uric Acid

Protein - Total Protein, Albumin, Globulin, Albumin/Globulin Ratio

Liver - SGPT, SGOT, GGTP, LDH, Total Bilirubin, Direct Bilirubin

Complete Blood Count (CBC) - Red Blood Cell count, White Blood Cell count, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, Platelet count, RDW, MCH, MCHC, MCV

Manual Red Blood Cell Morphology - Anisocytosis, Elliptocytes, Hypochromasia, Macrocytosis, Microcytosis, Ovalocytes, Poikilocytosis, Polychromasia, Target Cells, Overall Score

Lipid Profile - Total Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, Total Cholesterol/HDL Ratio, Triglycerides, Triglycerides/HDL Ratio

Manual Differential/White Blood Cell Details - Atypical Lymphocytes, Bands, Basophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Neutrophils

Cancer Screening - CEA, CA-19-9, CA-15-3, CA-125, Total PSA, PSA II (Total PSA & Free % PSA)

Thyroid - T4, T3 Uptake, T7 Index, TSH and Free T4

Heart - VAP, Homocysteine, C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP), Omega 3 value

Specialty Tests - Ferritin, Progesterone, A1c Hemoglobin, Fasting Insulin, Heavy Metals, Vitamin D, Cortisol, Sickle Cell Anemia, specialized hormone tests (such as PTH, Estrogen, Hgh

Individual Test Values

AA/EPA Ratio - (arachidonic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid) this is a great test to evaluate heart disease and inflammation.  It is a serum phospholipid test group which are analyzed to calculate the ratio of arachidonic acid to EPA essential fatty acids.  Balancing arachidonic acid levels reduces silent inflammation and pain and increases circulation. Optimal range: 1.5 to 3.  Normal range: 3 to 6Solution for high values: Increase your intake of pure high quality omega 3 fatty acid concentrates such as our Tuna Oil capsules, Linum B6 flaxseed oil capsules.

A-1-C Hemoglobin - (glycated hemoglobin test) Measures the amount of glucose chemically attached to your red blood cells.  It evaluates your glucose average for the last six to eight weeks. Optimal range: 4% to 6%Solution for high values: Gymnema, Diaplex, Cataplex GTF, Pancreatrophin PMG

Albumin - albumin is synthesized by the liver using dietary protein.  Its presence creates the osmotic force necessary to keep fluid volume within the vessels.  It represents about 2/3 of the total protein found in the blood. Optimal value is 4.5 to 4.8 g/100mlSolution for high value: Livaplex and increased water intake.  Solution for low value: Arginex, Cataplex C, Livaplex.

Albumin/Globulin Ratio (A/G) - this is a test that relates to liver disease, blood viscosity and buffering capacity.  The ratio of Albumin to Globulin helps to evaluate healthy proteins, as total protein levels are often elevated in persons with serious infections due to the production of antibodies.  Optimal value is 2. Solution for abnormal value: Protefood, Zypan, Immuplex.

Alkaline Phosphatase - an enzyme found in all body tissue, but primarily in bones, bile duct and the liver.  This helps to identify bile obstruction and the health of the gallbladder and may indicate bone, liver or bile duct disease.  It can be derived from the placenta causing values to be higher in pregnant women.  Optimal value is 45-75 mg/DL in men and 45-70 mg/DL in womenSolution for high value: AF Betafood, Livaplex, Cataplex F, Cal-Ma Plus.  Solution for low value: Zinc Liver Chelate, Chezyn, Thytrophin PMG.

Anion Gap - this is a test for metabolic acidosis.  One common calculation method is to add Chloride to CO2 bicarbonate level and then subtract this from the sodium level.  A good electrolyte balance result is 12.  Optimal value is 8-12 mEq/L depending on method of calculationSolution for high value: Renatrophin PMG, Renafood, Organic Minerals, Cataplex B.  Solution for low value: Cataplex C

Anisocytosis - this abnormality is indicated as slight, moderate or heavy when performed manually.  It is an indicator of red blood cell morphology and an abnormality impacts the red blood cells' ability to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the body's cells.  This can signify anemia, pernicious anemia or thalassemia.   Any measure is abnormalSolution for abnormal appearance: Ferrofood, Folic Acid B12, Super EFF, Chlorophyll Complex, FeMax Iron Tonic.

Automated Differential of WBC - this blood cell analysis provides information about the percentages of each type of white blood cell manufactured and present in the blood, which is a crucial determinant of immune system health since each cell type has its own function in protecting us from infection.  The differential can vary depending on age and significant increases in particular types are associated with different temporary acute and/or chronic conditions.  Normal adult values in %: Neutrophils 50-60; Lymphocytes 30-45; Monocytes 3-8; Eosinophils 0-3; Basophils 0-1. Solution for abnormal levels: See individual WBC types.

Basophils - these are another specific type of white blood cell which are manufactured in the bone marrow and protect body tissues.  They are present as part of the release of heparin to prevent blood clotting, and they are responsible for allergic responses and the release of lysosomes in the presence of histamines.  So it is really an indicator of systemic allergies, inflammatory states, parasites or thyroid malfunction.  They are especially indicative of issues within the intestines and the liver.  Optimal value is 0-1% of white blood cellsSolution for high value: Allerplex, Calcium Lactate, Antronex.

Bicarbonate (CO2) - this is the major waste product of normal metabolism.  Since the main route of excretion of CO2 is through the lungs, high levels are found in those with breathing difficulties such as pneumonia or emphysema.  It is a marker of the body's ability to maintain normal pH, and the amount of stress on the systems governing pH.  As a negative particle, bicarbonate is responsible for maintaining a balance with the positively charged electrolytes sodium, potassium and chloride.  Optimal value 24-28 mEq/L.  Solution for high value: Cal-Amo, Phosfood, Emphaplex.  Solution for Low Value: Cataplex A, B, C, F & Calcium Lactate, Organic Minerals, Drenamin. Increase water intake.

Bilirubin (Direct) - this is a specific form of bilirubin that is formed in the liver and excreted in bile.  Under normal conditions there is very little direct bilirubin in the blood, except in cases of liver disease, bile duct obstruction or impairment of liver cell function.  It is water-soluble and therefore may spill over into the urine.  Optimal value is 0 - 0.3 mg/dLSolution for high value: Antronex, Betacol, Livaplex.

Bilirubin (Total) - bilirubin is the end product of the natural breakdown of hemoglobin, produced in the spleen and then transported to the liver for excretion by attaching to albumin.  High concentrations may result in jaundice and indicate liver disease.  Bilirubin is also known for being the orange-yellow pigment that creates the yellow tint in blood serum.  Optimal value is 0.1-1.2 mg/DL.  Solution for high value: AF Betafood, Betacol, Cholacol II, Livaplex, Thymex.  Solution for low value: Cholacol, Multizyme, Desiccated Spleen.

BUN (blood urea nitrogen) - this is a waste product of protein breakdown, produced in the liver and excreted by the kidneys.  High values may mean that the kidneys are not working as well as they should.  It can be influenced by the amount of protein in the diet. Optimal value is 12-20 mg/DLSolution for high value: Arginex, Renafood, Cardio-Plus, Livaplex, Albaplex.  Solution for low value: Zypan, Protefood, Cataplex ACP.

BUN/Creatinine Ratio - this ratio is calculated by dividing BUN by Creatinine.  The ratio is important if BUN is high to narrow down the cause, because the ratio can help distinguish between a possible kidney problem and dehydration or intestinal blood loss.  Accepted Normal Range: 10-20:1.

CA-125 (Cancer Antigen 125) - Studies have shown that this test may forewarn of ovarian cancer tendencies.  80% of women who have ovarian cancer have elevated levels of the serum tumor marker CA-125.  The rate of false positives with CA-125 is also high, which is why this test alone cannot be used for screening purposes, but it is helpful to show trends.  Normal Accepted Range: Less than 35 U/mlSolution to support healthy ovaries: Ovex, Pituitrophin PMG, Hepatrophin PMG, Chaste Tree, Cataplex ACP

CA-15-3 ( Cancer Antigen 15-3) - CA 15-3 is a protein that is a normal product of breast tissue that can become elevated in the presence of tumor growth.  Elevated levels can be viewed in conjunction with the CEA and the CA-125 tests because elevated levels can be present due to benign breast disease, ovarian disease, endometriosis, PID, hepatitis and during pregnancy or lactation.  Normal Accepted Range: Less than 25 U/mlSolution to support healthy breast tissue: Mammary PMG, Thymex, Prolamine Iodine.

CA-19-9 (Cancer Antigen 19-9) - this test is traditionally used to investigate pancreatic masses.  This marker may be elevated in people with bile obstruction, pancreatitis, cirrhosis and intestinal cancers.  It is viewed in conjunction with the CEA.  Normal Accepted Range: Less than 37 U/ml. Solution to support healthy pancreatic function: Pancreatrophin PMG, Arginex, Cataplex ACP, Livaplex, Pituitrophin PMG.

Calcium (total) - calcium is controlled in the blood by the parathyroid gland and the kidneys and is one of the most important elements in the body.  Virtually all of the calcium in your body is found in bone, but the remaining amount is very important for healthy teeth, proper blood clotting, muscle function and nerve, cell and enzyme activity.  This test reflects more of the the metabolic and hormonal state of the individual, not the total calcium stored in the body.  It is also important to check the Calcium/Phosphorus Ratio which should be 10:4.  Optimal value is 9.5 - 10.2 mg%.  Solution for high value: Symplex F/M, Phosfood, Biodent, Cataplex F, Cal-Ma Plus.  Solution for low value: Calcium Lactate, Cal-Ma Plus, Cataplex D, Zypan.

CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) - CEA is a protein that normally occurs in fetal gut tissue.  After birth, detectable serum levels essentially disappear.  However, CEA increases in the presence of various cancers, such as breast, thyroid, lung, liver, pancreas, stomach, bone and colon.  Detection time with this test ranges from 3 to 36 months prior to the onset of disease.  Accepted Normal Range: Less than 2.5 ng/ml in an adult non-smoker or less than 5.0 ng/ml in an adult smoker.

Chloride - similar to sodium, chloride helps to maintain the pH of the body and adrenal and renal functions.  This element is almost never found out of balance alone and usually fluctuates with elevated or decreased levels of sodium or potassium.  Optimal value is 101-103 mEq/LSolution for high value: Arginex, Renafood, Livaplex.  Solution for low value: Cataplex ACP, Zypan, Protefood, Cal-Amo.

Cholesterol (total) - cholesterol is essential for nerve health, adrenal hormones, sex drive and reproduction.  Cholesterol makes it possible to pass vital substances through cell walls which keeps us from getting hyperhydrosis.  Elevated cholesterol is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, and this is best used as an indicator of a metabolic dysfunction.  It should not be considered a disease by itself.  75% of all heart attacks happen to people who have "normal" cholesterol levels.  For an accurate measure of health, it is best to take total cholesterol and divide it by HDL.  This ratio more accurately predicts heart disease risk.  Optimal total cholesterol value is 185-200 mg/dlSolution for high value: AF Betafood, Linum B6, Cholaplex (with HBP) or Soy Bean Lecithin, Thytrophin PMG.  Solution for low value: Wheat Germ Oil, Trace Minerals B12, Immuplex.

Complete Blood Count (CBC) - this is a complete panel analysis of blood cells and coagulation.  It evaluates concentration, structure and function of the different blood cells including RBC's, WHC/s and platelets.

C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) - this is a substance in the blood that is a marker of inflammation to the blood vessels and a strong predictor of heart disease risk.  It is also important in other inflammatory diseases like arthritis, lupus and fibromyalgia.  Accepted Normal Range: 1-3 mg/LSolution for high value: Cataplex C.

Creatinine - this is a measure of the kidneys' ability to excrete waste.  It is formed in muscles as a normal by-product of metabolism.  Comparing the excretion of creatinine to urea helps to assess kidney function, and malnutrition, dehydration and liver function all have little influence on creatinine, unlike BUN.  Optimal value is 0.8-1.1Solution for high value: Arginex, Renatrophin PMG, Renafood, Cardio-Plus.  Solution for low value: Cardio-Plus, Protefood.

Elliptocytes - these are elliptical red blood cells, which is an abnormal shape.  It is generally an inherited condition and can be a cause of severe anemia.  Any level is abnormalSee Anisocytosis for suggestions.

Eosinophils - these are a specific type of white blood cell that are manufactured in the bone marrow.  They help fight against allergic reactions and protect the lungs, skin and gastrointestinal tract.  They are also important to the body's defense against infection and can point out an immune process that is occurring in the tissues of the body.  Optimal value is 0-3% of WBCSolutions for high value: Allerplex, Cal-Amo Antronex, Zymex II, Multizyme.

Ferritin - this is an iron-carrying protein, which is a more accurate monitor of long-term body iron status than the blood iron level, which can vary with your diet.  Ferritin is the major iron storage protein.  The serum ferritin level is directly proportional to the amount of iron stored in the body and so it evaluates how well your cells absorb iron not how much iron is taken into the body.  Accepted Normal Ranges: 18-270 ng/ml for men and 18-160 ng/ml for womenSolutions for low value: Chlorophyll Perles, Zypan, Livaplex, Codonopsis, Dong Quai.

GGTP (gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) - this is an enzyme which can be an early indicator of liver abnormalities.  It is a test for liver damage or biliary obstruction of the bile duct, as well as gallbladder and pancreatic function.  Alcohol, caffeine and medications or drugs can affect this score.  Optimal value is 20-30 U/L. Solution for high value: AF Betafood, Livaplex, Catalyn, Protefood, Hepatrophin PMG.  Solution for low value: Thytrophin PMG, B6 Niacinamide, Magnesium Lactate, Zinc Liver Chelate.

Globulins (total) - globulins are a major group of proteins in the blood comprising the infection-fighting antibodies.  They act as transportation agents for vital nutrients and other components in the blood, such as sex hormones, thyroid hormones, copper, iron and even cholesterol.  If the level is out of range, then specific globulins can be identified for further discussion.  Optimal value is 2.8-3.0 g/dLSolution for high value: Protefood, Catalyn, Zypan, Livaplex, Immuplex.  Solution for low value: Arginex or Albaplex, Livaplex, Thymex, Desiccated Spleen.

Glucose - glucose is a six-carbon sugar that is the main source of energy for all of the cells of the body, and especially the brain.  The rate at which it is metabolized is controlled by insulin, which is secreted by the pancreas.  Elevated fasting glucose levels may be an early sign of diabetes, while low levels could indicate too much insulin in the blood.  This is the base from which sugar handling is determined. Optimal value is 85-100 mg/DL. Solution for high value: Betafood, Drenamin, Paraplex, Protefood, Cataplex GTF, Inositol, Diaplex, Multizyme.  Solution for low value: Cataplex GTF, Drenamin, Pancreatrophin PMG, Zinc Liver Chelate, AF Betafood, Cataplex B, Paraplex.

HDL (high density lipoprotein) - HDL's are a class of phospholipids and lipoproteins produced by the liver and intestines to help remove excess cholesterol from the arteries and transport it to the liver.  High levels seem to be associated with low incidence of coronary heart disease. Diets high in sugar may decrease HDL while increasing total serum cholesterol.  Optimal value is 55-75Solution for low value: Betafood, Diaplex, Immuplex, Super EFF, Cataplex B, Magnesium Lactate.  Reduce carbohydrate intake.

Hematocrit (HCT) - this is an indicator of red blood cell health and is generally viewed with hemoglobin, RBCs and other blood factors.  It measures the volume of red cells that transport oxygen through the blood stream to all cells of the body.  Optimal value is 42-45% for men and 40-43% for womenSolution for high value: Emphaplex, Desiccated Spleen, Livaplex.  Solution for low value: Ferrofood, Chlorophyll Perles, Folic Acid B12, Immuplex.

Hemoglobin (HGB) - this is a protein which enables the red blood cells to distribute oxygen throughout the body.  The amount of oxygen in the body tissues depends on how much hemoglobin is in the red blood cells.  With low levels, the heart and lungs must work harder to compensate.  It is used as an indicator of the amount of intracellular iron and gives the red color to blood.  Optimal value is 14-17 g/DL for men and 14-16 g/DL for womenSolution for low value: Ferrofood, Chlorophyll Perles, Folic Acid B12, Immuplex.

Homocysteine - this is an amino acid which can destroy the lining of artery walls, accelerating the build-up of scar tissue and promoting the formation of blood clots.  Elevated levels are strong indicators for heart disease and may indicate that cholesterol is able to stick to the blood vessel walls and cause blockages.  Optimal range is 0-5 micromoles/L.  Solution for high value: Folic Acid B12, AF Betafood, Betacol, Cataplex B.

Hypochromasia - this is an abnormality that can occur in red blood cells due to a lack of hemoglobin in the red blood cells and low iron levels.  For solution options see Iron & Hemoglobin.

Insulin, Fasting - This is the base test to help evaluate insulin production of the pancreas and to help determine the cause of hypoglycemia.  Optimal Level: 2-5 uIU/mLSolutions for high value: Cataplex GTF, Chezyn, Zinc Liver Chelate, Diaplex, Gymnema, Pancreatrophin PMG.  Solutions for low value: Diaplex, Cataplex B, Licorice, Drenamin, Paraplex, Gymnema.  Essential to eat every 3 hours.

Iron - Iron is vital in order for the body to make hemoglobin and help transfer oxygen to muscles.  If iron is low, all body cells cannot metabolize well, and if iron levels are too high, there can be injury to the heart, pancreas, joints and gonads.  Optimal range: 75-150 mg/mlSolutions for high value: Livaplex, Zinc Liver Chelate, Chezyn.  Solutions for low value: Ferrofood, Chlorophyll Perles, Zypan, Catalyn, Fe-Max Iron Tonic.

LDH (lactic dehydrogenase) - this is an enzyme found mostly in the heart, muscles, liver, kidney, brain and red blood cells and is a catalyst for the conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid during cellular energy production.  When an organ of the body is damaged, often the liver or heart, LDH is released in greater quantities into the blood stream.  Optimal range: 90-150 iU/LSolutions for high value: Betacol, Livaplex, CardioPlus.

LDL (low density lipoprotein) - LDLs contain the greatest percentage of cholesterol and transport cholesterol from the liver to the tissues of the body.  In this way they are responsible for depositing cholesterol on the artery walls when found in the blood in high levels.  An important value is the Triglyceride/HDL ratio which should be less than 2.0.  Optimal value: Less than 130Solutions for high value: Cholacol, Cholaplex, Betafood, Cataplex A.  Diet is very important.

Lymphocytes - these are the second most common type of white blood cell.  Lymphocytes are manufactured in the spleen, lymph nodes and intestinal-related lymph tissue.  Lymphocytes react to the toxic by-products of protein metabolism and produce neutralizing antibodies against viral disease.  Optimal value: 30-45% of white blood cells or 1000 to 4000 uLSolution for high value: Thymex, Immuplex, Cataplex ACP, Calcium Lactate.  Solution for low value: Arginex, Cataplex AC, Livaplex.

Lymphocytes, Atypical - a specific type of white blood cell with an irregular shape and size derived from lymph tissue.  The presence of these cells in peripheral blood usually means your immune system is overworked, or there could be an infection present. Optimal value: <3%Solution for high value: Immuplex, Congaplex, Allerplex, Desiccated Spleen.

Macrocytosis - this is an abnormality that can occur in red blood cells, where they become abnormally large.  Any level is abnormalSee Anisocytosis for suggestions.

Magnesium, Serum - this mineral is very important to nerves and muscles.  Symptoms resulting from low levels of magnesium include tremors, muscle cramps or irregular heartbeat and are often found in cases of malnutrition, alcoholism, diabetes and pregnancy.  Magnesium plays a role in both carbohydrate and protein metabolism and can be lost through the digestive tract, kidneys and in sweat.  Roughly 1/3 is bound to protein while the rest exists as free cations.  Low magnesium is very common.  Optimal range: 2.0-3.0 mg/DLSolutions for high value: Cataplex ACP, Albaplex, Renatrophin PMG, Renafood, Livaplex.  Solutions for low value: Magnesium Lactate, Collinsonia Root, Chlorophyll Perles, Livaplex, Renafood, CalMa Plus.

MCH (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin) - MCH is a calculation derived from dividing the hemoglobin score by the number of red blood cells and multiply by ten.  MCH reflects the average hemoglobin concentration within red blood cells.  Optimal range: 31-35%Solutions for high value: Folic Acid B12, Zypan.  Solutions for low value: Ferrofood, Chlorophyll Perles, Zypan, Catalyn.

MCHC (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration) - MCHC measures the relative volume of hemoglobin in the average red blood cell (i.e., what portion of each red blood cell is hemoglobin).  Together with MCV, MCHC is used to identify types of anemia.  Optimal range: 26-33Solutions are the same as for MCH.

MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume) - MCV refers to the relative volume of each red blood cell or its average size.  MCV helps determine the size oxygen-carrying capacity of individual red blood cells.  Together with MCHC, MCV is used to identify types of anemia.  Optimal range: 88-92Solutions for high value: Folic Acid B12, Zypan.  Solutions for low value: Ferrofood, Betaine HCL or Zypan, Zymex, B6 Niacinamide, Chlorophyll Perles, Catalyn, Cataplex B, Cataplex G.

Microcytosis - An abnormality that can occur in red blood cells which causes them to be abnormally small.  Any level is abnormalSee Anisocytosis for suggestions.

Monocytes - The largest cells in your blood, monocytes begin their existence in the bone marrow and migrate into the bloodstream.  They stay in the bloodstream for about three days and prepare themselves for battle against infection in the body's tissues.  Monocytes engulf and digest foreign particles as well as damaged body cells that caused the reaction.  They also fight bacteria, pollens and viruses.  Also help to reduce swelling by ingesting stagnant fluids in inflamed tissues.  Optimal range: 3-8% of WBCSolutions for high level: Zymex, Multizyme, Livaplex, Zymex II, Cal-Amo, Antronex.

Neutrophils - Segmented neutrophils make up more than half of the white blood cells in the body.  Produced in the bone marrow, they enter the body tissues within twenty-four hours.  In the event of an infection, neutrophils destroy bacteria by engulfing them.  If there is no infection, these cells self-destruct.  Immature neutrophils are known as bands.  They are confined to the bone marrow and in the case of acute infections, they may be prematurely released to help fight the invading pathogen.  Optimal range: 50-60% of WBC. Solutions for high value: Cataplex C, Drenatrophin PMG, Allerplex, Congaplex, Immuplex, Desiccated Spleen, Thymex. Solutions for low value: Thymex, Congaplex, Immuplex, Desiccated Spleen, Ferrofood, Allerplex.

Ovalocytes - an abnormality that can occur in red blood cells causing them to be oval in shape.  Any level is abnormalSee Anisocytosis for suggestions.

Phosphorus - Most of the phosphorus in the body is found in the bones.  An optimum phosphorus level in the blood is very important for muscle and nerve function.  Together with calcium, it is essential for healthy development of bones and teeth and is associated with hormone imbalance, bone disease and kidney disease. The optimal Calcium /Phosphorus ratio is 10:4.  Other values that can affect phosphorus are potassium, PTH, magnesium, thyroid, adrenal or pituitary issues. Optimal range: 3.8-4.2Solutions for high value: Renafood, Cataplex F, CalMa Plus, Multizyme.  Solutions for low value: Phosfood, Nutrimere, Zypan, Cataplex D.

Platelet Count - Platelets are produced in the bone marrow and are essential for normal blood clotting during bleeding.  They initiate repair of blood vessel walls and are acutely reactive to infection or inflammation.  Platelet counts may be higher in women than men.  Platelets are cells in the blood, but they lack muclei and are part of the formed elements of blood.  Optimal range: 150-350 cu/mmSolutions for high levels: Phosfood, Desiccated Spleen, Sesame Seed Oil, Symplex F/M, Livaplex.  Solutions for low value: Congaplex, Immuplex, Folic Acid B12, Cataplex E, Seasame Seed Oil, Desiccated Spleen.

Poikilocytosis - an abnormality that can occur in red blood cells.  Any level is abnormalSee Anisocytosis for suggestions.

Polychromasia - an abnormality that can occur in red blood cells where a grayish-blue staining of the red blood cells occur as a result of immaturity in the red blood cells.  Any level is abnormalSee Anisocytosis for suggestions.

Potassium - this electrolyte is found primarily inside cells and is controlled very carefully by the kidneys.  Potassium maintains water balance inside the cells and helps in the transmission of nerve impulses.  It is very important for the proper functioning of the nerves and muscles, particularly the heart.  It must be in balance with its counterpart, sodium and is the major intracellular electrolyte.  It is a major electrolyte to be considered with cardiac irregularity and sensitivity.  Insulin moves potassium into the cell and the Sodium/Potassium ATP pump which maintains levels is controlled with Magnesium and thyroid hormones.  Optimal range: 4.1-4.6 mEq/LSolutions for high value: Drenamin, B6 Niacinamide, Calcium Lactate, Desiccated Adrenal, Renafood, Livaplex.  Solutions for low value: Organically Bound Minerals, Cataplex B, Cataplex G, Hippocrates Potassium Broth.

Progesterone - this is a steroidal hormone made in both men and women.  It plays an important role in pregnancies and specifically helps the body regulate the estrogen and testosterone hormone cycles.  In women progesterone helps make the uterus ready for implantation of a fertilized egg and the level can vary depending on the time of the month and whether the woman is reproductive or post-menopausal.  Many people believe that blood testing for progesterone is not accurate as a predictor of reproductive health.  Optimal blood serum levels: Female - pre-ovulation is less than 1 ng/mL - mid-cycle is 5-20 ng/mL - postmenopausal is less than 1 ng/mL.  Male - less than 1 ng/mLSolutions for high value: Desiccated Adrenal, Drenatrophin PMG, Symplex F, Ovex.  Solutions for low value: Chaste Tree, White Peony, Wild Yam Complex, Ladies' Mantle, Sarsaparilla, Ovatrophin PMG, Ovex.

Protein, total - this is a rough measure of the total amount of serum protein in your body.  It represents the sum of the albumin and globulin scores.  Total protein helps in understanding your metabolic function as well as your body's overall defense capability.  It is primarily formed in the liver and there are several distinct types of protein, each with its own function, such as albumin and globulin.  Optimal range: 6.5 -8.0 g/100mlSolutions for high value: Desiccated Adrenal, Betaine HCL or Zypan, Protefood, Nutrimere.  Solutions for low value: Protefood, Zypan, Nutrimere.

PSA, total - this is a measurement of the total mount of prostate specific antigen in the blood.  This is a protein made only in the prostate gland and is produced by both a normal and an unhealthy prostate.  Total PSA is not an indicator or marker for cancer, instead only indicating a possible enlargement of the prostate.  Optimal value: Less than 4.0 ng/mlSolutions for high value: Palmettoplex, Cataplex F, Prostate PMG, Andrographis Complex, ProstaCo, Prost-X, Korean Ginseng, Zinc Liver Chelate.

PSA II - the PSA II is a combination of total PSA and Free % PSA, which together aid in the early detection of prostate enlargement.  Total PSA is the most common test, which alone is not a good indicator of prostate health, as it only measures the amount of prostate specific antigen in the blood.  When viewed with Free % PSA (the free form of the prostate specific antigen), a much more specific picture of the prostate emerges.  Optimal value for Free % PSA: Higher than 25%Solutions for low value is the same as those for high total PSA above. 

Red Blood Cell Count (RBC) - red blood cells (erythrocytes) are relatively large cells in the blood that transport oxygen from the lungs to all living tissue in the body.  They also help to remove carbon dioxide from the body.  Normally, 40% to 45% of blood volume consists of red blood cells and varies between men and women.  Optimal range: Male - 4.5-5.0 million cu/mm; Female - 4.0-4.7 million cu/mmSolutions for high level: Emphaplex, Desiccated Spleen, Livaplex.  Solutions for low level: Ferrofood, Zypan, Catalyn, Chlorophyll Perles.  Increase water intake and eliminate dairy products, alcohol and tobacco.

Red Blood Cell Differential (Morphology) - Analysis can be automated or manual to give specific information about abnormalities (size, shape and color) of your red blood cells.  Automated testing is generally more accurate than manual testing.  This can help to determine B vitamin deficiency, anemia and other red blood cell issues.  For optimal values, see individual red blood cell tests listed.

RDW (Red Cell Distribution Width) - this test is done to determine the size of a red blood cell.  RDW must be within particular limits to properly carry oxygen.  Cells that are newly made, B12 deficient or folic acid deficient are larger than iron-deficient cells.  Optimal level: 13Solutions for high value: Folic Acid B12, Zypan, Ferrofood.  Solutions for low value: Zypan, Ferrofood.

SGOT (AST) - Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase, or SGOT is an enzyme found in body tissues (heart, liver, kidney, brain, skeletal muscles, spleen and lungs) where proteins are broken down into energy.  This is an indicator of cellular damage, particularly heart, liver, muscle and highly metabolic cells, as it is released into circulation following the injury or death of cells.  Optimal range: 20-30 U/LSolutions for high value: Livaplex, CardioPlus, Greenfood, Cataplex E2, Ligaplex II, AF Betafood, Hepatrophin PMG.  Solutions for low value: B6 Niacinamide, Cataplex B, Cataplex G, Vasculin, CardioPlus.

SGPT (ALT) - Serum Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase, or SGPT is an enzyme that helps metabolize protein and glucose conversion, a process which takes place primarily in the mitochondria of the cells of the liver.  An increase in this test is a signal for liver stress or damage.  Optimal range: 20-30 U/LSolutions for high value: Livaplex, CardioPlus, Vasculin, Greenfood, AF Betafood, Hepatrophin PMG.  Solutions for low value: B6 Niacinamide, Magnesium Lactate, Zinc Liver Chelate.

Sickle Cell Anemia - this is an inherited disease.  It occurs when red blood cells assume an irregular chape due to a malformation of hemoglobin.  The symptoms of this disease include fatigue and circulation problems.  Sickle cell anemia can lead to serious health problems later in life if not discovered early and treated.  Any level is abnormalSee Anisocytosis for suggestions.

Sodium - this electrolyte is regulated by the kidneys and the adrenal glands.  Sodium helps balance water volume and pressure in body tissues.  Because sodium acts as a sponge, it prevents water from overloading cells by keeping it in the bloodstream and in the fluids that surround cells.  Without sodium, your body could not carry nutrients and wastes to and from cells, transmit electrical impulses throughout your nervous system, give you control of your bodily movements or support the automatic functions of your intestinal tract.  To determine a good electrolyte balance, check the Anion Gap.  Optimal range: 142-145 mEq/L Solutions for high value: Drenamin, Min Tran, Renafood, Livaplex, Increase water intake.  Solutions for low value: Drenamin, Niacinamide B6, Cataplex B, Cataplex G, Disodium Phosphate.

T3 Uptake - this test often causes confusion because it is not a thyroid test.  It is actually a test to find out if the thyroid has enough protein (specifically tyrosine or casein).  A high test score may indicate a low level of the proteins.  It determines the amount of unsaturated TBG and the available number of binding sites.  This test is used to compute the T7 Free Thyroxine Index.  Optimal range: .25-.35% (ideal is 1/3 of sites filled)Solutions for high value: Thytrophin PMG, Antronex, Symplex M, Trace Minerals B12.  Solutions for low value: Thytrophin PMG, Cataplex F.

T4 (Thyroxine), Free - T4 is a thyroid gland hormone that uses traces of iodine combined with the amino acid tyrosine to create T4.  Measuring direct T4 is a useless evaluation.  It is more important to measure the amount of thyroxine thyroid hormone that frees itself from protein and goes to the area of the body where it is needed.  This test directly measures the T4 in the blood that is available and unbound rather than estimating it like the Free Thyroxine Index (T7).  Free T4 helps the body metabolize foods and is the best single measurement of thyroid function.  Optimal range: 1.1-1.7 ug/dlSolutions for high value: Antronex, Symplex M, Trace Minerals B12, Pancreatrophin PMG.  Solutions for low value: Thytrophin PMG, Cataplex F, Iodomere.

T7 Free Throxine Index - the T7 index is used to calculate Free T4, one of two active thyroid hormones in the blood.  The T7 Index is a calculated Free T4 score and is not as accurate as the Free T4 test.  Typical range: 4 parts T4 to 1 part T3Solutions for high value: Antronex, Thytrophin PMG, Trace Minerals B12, Thymex, Pancreatrophin PMG, Calcium Lactate.  Solutions for low value: Thytrophin PMG, Cataplex F tablets.

Target Cells - this is another abnormality that can occur in red blood cells that resembles a target with a bull's eye.  It is usually present after the spleen has been removed or in certain anemias.  Any level is abnormalSee Anisocytosis for suggestions.

TBG (Thyroxine Binding Globulin) - TBG is a protein that moves thyroid hormone throughout the body.  This measurement is useful in distinguishing between hyper/hypothyroidism caused by T3 vs. T4 and when available thyroid hormone levels are too low.  Optimal range: 12-28Solutions for high value: Thytrophin PMG, Antronex, Trace Minerals B12.  Solutions for low value: Thytrophin PMG, Cataplex F.

TPO (Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody) - this measures the thyroid antibody TPO which will be above normal levels in the presence of Hashimoto's disease.  This is an autoimmune thyroid disease test.  Typical Normal Range: Less than 9.0 IU/mLSolutions for high value: Rehmannia Complex, Echinacea Premium, St. John's Wort, Thyroid Complex, Thytrophin PMG.

Triglycerides - these are a kind of fat found in the blood that is responsible for providing energy to the cells of the body.  Triglycerides are made in the liver from excess carbohydrates, especially sugars and alcohol.  They are stored in special cells called adipose tissue and an elevated level can indicate poor utilization or overproduction.  Triglyceride/HDL ratio is ideally less than 2.0.  Optimal range: 70-100 mg/dlSolutions for high value: Cholacol or Cholacol II, Cholaplex, AF Betafood or Betafood, Cataplex A, Linum B6, Diaplex, CardioPlus.  Solutions for low value: Wheat Germ Oil, Immuplex, AF Betafood, Paraplex, Cholacol.

TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) - this is a protein hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in response to the hypothalmus.  The pituitary gland regulates the release of TSH, which then tells the thyroid gland to release additional T4 as needed.  The thyroid also works as a stimulant to liver cells to produce the cholesterol and lecithin that are essential to bile. Optimal range: 1.0-2.5 mcIU/mlSolutions for high value: If value is above 8.5 add Prolamine Iodine, Thytrophin PMG, Cataplex F tablets, Antronex, Symplex M/F, Trace Minerals B12. Solutions for low value: E-Manganese, Symplex F/M.

Uric Acid - this is a by-product of protein metabolism eliminated through the kidneys.  Uric acid is an indicator of kidney function and a strong marker for gout.  It results from a breakdown of nucleic acids, which are complex molecules that store genetic information and if too high, can overwhelm the kidneys and liver.  Values vary between men and women.  Optimal range: Male - 3.5-5.9 mg/DL; Female - 3.0-5.5 mg/DLSolutions for high value: Zypan, AC Carbamide, Renafood, Albaplex, Magnesium, Min Tran, Organically Bound Minerals.  Solutions for low value: Livaplex, Folic Acid B12, Multizyme, Black Currant Seed.

VAP (Vertical Auto Profile Test) - this test is able to identify whether cholesterol problems are in the genes or only due to improper diet and lack of exercise.  Recent research has demonstrated that there are varying types and forms of HDL and LDL particles.  Some are less dangerous than others and this test spins a blood sample to separate these types, allowing them to be identified to assess risk.  In 90% of abnormal cholesterol problems, proper diet, exercise and supplementation can correct the imbalance, even when it is genetic.  Obtaining such a comprehensive and specific test can be invaluable in restoring normalized cholesterol metabolism.  Optimal Levels are evaluated for 22 individual values. 

WBC (White Blood Cell Count) - this test counts the white blood cells (leukocytes) present in the blood which are the body's primary defense against disease and infections.  There are several types which can be indicated in secondary tests.  Even subtle rises in the WBC count can indicate low grade infections.  Optimal range: 4.0-5.5 Th/cu.mmSolutions for high value: Allerplex, Congaplex, Zymex, Immuplex, Desiccated Spleen, Thymex.  Solutions for low value: Immuplex, Protefood, Congaplex, Desiccated Spleen, Thymex, Nutrimere.

Zinc, serum - this mineral has a key role in maintaining healthy stomach digestion, protein metabolism, insulin production, testosterone production, immunity and skin health.  It is essential for the proper functioning of the prostate gland and sperm production.  Research indicates that 80% of people are low in zinc, however serum blood testing of zinc can be inaccurate.  Zinc levels vary dramatically throughout the day, after meals, during fasting, stress and pregnancy.  Optimal range is 10.7 to 20 ug/dlSolutions for high value: Copper Liver Chelate, Ferrofood, Calcium Lactate, Cataplex A, Folic Acid B12, Choline, Soy Bean Lecithin.  Solutions for low value: Zinc Liver Chelate, Chezyn, Trace Minerals B12, Zypan, Immuplex.